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Malathion resistance in red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from FCI godowns of Kerala, India

Laboratory studies were conducted during 2018-2019 in the Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, to evaluate the susceptibility of different populations of Tribolium castaneum Malathion (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) collected from five FCI godowns of Kerala viz., Thikkodi, Olavakkode, Mulangunnathukavu, Angamaly and Valiyathura to malathion with respect to the laboratory maintained susceptible strain from IARI, New Delhi. Residual film bioassay was carried out using technical grade malathion. Angamaly population of T. castaneum showed 13.34 fold resistance with the highest LC50 value of 6949.80 ppm, while the IARI strain had the lowest LC50 of 520.76 ppm. Resistance ratios for Mulangunnathukavu, Valiyathura, Olavakkode and Thikkodi population were 11.82, 11.27, 10.99 and 10.95, respectively. Resistance to malathion in all field collected populations were uniform and homogenous.

Emamectin benzoate resistance in diamondback moth in different locations of Karnataka

Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) is one of the few insect species that has developed field resistance to all major classes of insecticides. In this view, the present investigation was carried out to study the levels of insecticidal resistance in the larvae of diamondback moth collected from major cabbage growing districts of Karnataka at Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, UAS, and Raichur during 2017-19. Log dose probit analysis indicated LC50 of emamectin benzoate in the range of 4.01 ppm to 31.77 ppm with maximum in Mysuru strain (39.07 ppm) and minimum (9.16 ppm) was reported from Raichur. The relative resistance ratio was found to be highest in the diamondback moth population of Mysuru (7.98-fold) followed by Haveri (7.02-fold), Chamrajnagar (6.84-fold), Bengaluru (5.69-fold), Chikmagalur (5.03 -fold) and Bidar (4.02-fold) over the susceptible Raichur strain. These results indicated that diamondback moth under selection pressure of emamectin benzoate showed higher degree of resistance.

Monitoring insecticide resistance and diagnostics of resistance mechanisms in Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Q biotype) in China

Bemisia tabaci is one of notorious agricultural insect pests in China, and the strategies of management largely depend on application of insecticides. In order to assess levels of resistance in field populations of B. tabaci to six insecticides including abamectin, cyantraniliprole, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin, we monitored the susceptibility to all tested insecticides in five field populations across China and the results indicated that field populations of B. tabaci have developed various levels of resistance to each chemical agent. Furthermore, para-type voltage gated sodium channel mutations (L925I and T929V) and acetylcholinesterase ace1 mutation (F331W) were confirmed, and expression levels of CYP6CM1, CYP4C64, GSTd7 and ABCG3 were detected for investigating mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in the five field-collected populations. The results showed that, in all tested populations, frequencies of F331W were 100%, and the frequencies of the L925I and T929V were in the range of 28.5 to 47.0% and 11.0 to 53.5%, respectively. Moreover, CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64 were significantly overexpressed in two tested populations, respectively, and GSTd7 was significantly overexpressed in one population. No overexpression of ABCG3 was observed in all the populations. Above results provided valuable insight into the current status of insecticide resistance and could be contributed to design strategies of management for B. tabaci.

Functional analysis of UGT201D3 associated with abamectin resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)

Uridine diphosphate (UDP)‐glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are widely distributed within living organisms and share roles in biotransformation of various lipophilic endo‐ and xenobiotics with activated UDP sugars. In this study, it was found that the activity of UGTs in abamectin‐resistant (AbR) strain was significantly higher (2.35‐fold) than that in susceptible strain (SS) of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Further analysis showed that 5‐nitrouracil, the inhibitor of UGTs, could enhance the lethal effect of abamectin on mites. From the previous microarray results, we found an UGT gene (UGT201D3) overexpressed in AbR strain. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that UGT201D3 was highly expressed and more inducible with abamectin exposure in the AbR strain. After silencing the transcription of UGT201D3, the activity of UGTs was decreased and the susceptibility to abamectin was increased in AbR strain whereas it was not in SS. Furthermore, UGT201D3 gene was then successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant UGT201D3 exhibited α‐naphthol activity (2.81 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein/min), and the enzyme activity could be inhibited by abamectin (inhibitory concentration at 50%: 57.50 ± 3.54 μmol/L). High‐performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that the recombinant UGT201D3 could effectively deplete abamectin (15.77% ± 3.72%) incubating with 150 μg protein for 6 h. These results provided direct evidence that UGT201D3 was involved in abamectin resistance in T. cinnabarinus.

Long‐term field insecticide susceptibility data and laboratory experiments reveal evidence for cross resistance to other neonicotinoids in the imidacloprid‐resistant brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

Long‐term monitoring data is helpful to understand the fluctuation of susceptibility and pattern of cross resistance in insecticide resistance management. After the occurrence of imidacloprid resistance, the brown planthopper (BPH) has gradually developed resistance to thiamethoxam and clothianidin since 2010, but not to dinotefuran and nitenpyram. Here, we analyzed susceptibilities data of five neonicotinoids during 2005–2017 in East Asia and Vietnam to conduct cross‐resistance patterns among neonicotinoids. To determine the factors of development of cross resistance in laboratory bioassays, we used the imidacloprid resistant and control strains that were selected from filed populations in the Philippines and Vietnam.

Artigos anteriores


Subsídios para a Implementação de um Programa de Manejo da Resistência de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a Inseticidas na Cultura do Algodão.
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Comitê Brasileiro de Ação à Resistência a Inseticidas - IRAC-BR - 2020

Desenvolvido por Allge Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento